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All You Need to Know about Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Research Updates

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Introduction:

A Novel Coronavirus was first transmitted from a lab of Wuhan in China in December 2019. Now it has transmitted to most of the nations in six continents. According to research work, it has been found that Coronavirus is originated from a varied species of bat and birds. The analysis of Coronavirus by molecular clock dating suggests that the last recent ancestor of such virus used to exist almost 10,000 years ago. As it is originated from some of the important pathogens of bats and mammals, Coronavirus or Covid-19 is a positive-sense RNA virus. It can be classified into four genres:

  • Alpha Coronavirus
  • Beta Coronavirus
  • Gamma Coronavirus
  • Delta Coronavirus

Alpha and Beta Coronaviruses are exclusively originated from mammals, whereas Gamma and Delta Coronaviruses mainly infect birds. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus was first identified in 2003. As a result, there were many human beings, domestic animals and wildlife was detected with Novel Coronavirus. The interesting point is the surveillance of Coronavirus among the wild animals has initiated the foundation of the greatest variety of Coronavirus in Bat and other avian species. 

Some of the common signs of Covid-19 infections are as same as the normal cold diseases like respiratory problems. It includes breathing problems, dry cough, fever, etc. If the case is more severe, then it can turn into even kidney problem. 

According to a phylogenetic study of avian species Coronavirus, it has been suggested that such types of animals are the natural reservoirs of viruses. The molecular clock analysis which was done on the basis of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) suggested that there were four generations of Coronavirus.

At this moment, there is no vaccination available to tackle Covid-19. Though there are a few ongoing medical and clinical trials are going on all over the world to cure such deadly disease. World Health Organization (WHO) is trying hard to create awareness globally. Countries like China, USA, and Italy have suffered a lot. More than ten lakhs people are infected all over the globe.  

Coronavirus is basically a family of a large number of zoonotic viruses which creates a huge setback in human being’s health. The zoonotic virus is a kind of virus which can be transmitted from animals to a human being. There are various Coronaviruses:

Prevention method:

The best way possible to fight against Covid-19 is to lockdown yourself in your house. It will slow down the process of transmission from one person to another. Always protect yourself by keeping your surroundings and your body clean. As Coronavirus is transmitted mainly through saliva droplets and sneezing liquid from the nose, thus it is advised to use mask and gloves while you are out of your house. Here is a list of few things which one should do to get rid of Covid-19:

  • Wash your hand every now and then with hand wash or with alcohol-based hand sanitizer
  • Always maintain a distance of at least 1 meter between you and the people you are communicating with physically. This technique will protect you from the harmful transmission of the virus from the person you are communicating with
  • Do not touch your face or rub your eyes or nose with your fingers.
  • Always cover your face while coughing or sneezing.
  • Stay at home, while you feel sick or unwell
  • Stay away from smoking and other associated activities which can affect your lungs badly

Symptoms of COVID-19:

There is no single and specific symptom which will signify that one can have Covid-19 virus. But there are a few common signals which one should be aware of. It includes fever, dry cough, and unwanted tiredness. Some associated symptoms include headache, pain in other body parts, swelled throat, diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, sense of tasteless, rash or infection on the skin, etc. 

Apart from all these things, there are a few serious symptoms, which should be checked by the doctors. Such serious symptoms include the difficulty in breathing, pressure or pain on chest, loss of body movement or speech. If someone finds such symptoms, then he/she must visit the nearest hospital for the treatment and do the necessary things like undergoing Covid-19 test. 

According to a report of World Health Organization (WHO), more than 2 lac people have already died all over the world. That is why; an international team of experts has undertaken a benchmark and comprehensive responsibilities to respond in an effective way around 195 nations across six continents. It mainly focuses on the following aspects:

Prevention: Releasing pathogens to prevent such spreading

Reporting and detection: Detecting the disease and early reporting can help in a larger way to get rid of such deadly virus and from its ill effect

Quick response: Quick actions are needed to be taken to stop the rapid transmission

Health System: There should be sufficient arrangement of medical equipment to treat Covid-19 patients.

The current epidemic of the new Coronavirus novel for 2019 has affected several major countries in the world. China, country of origin, South Korea, Italy and Iran are among the most affected regions.

The panic in India spread from 15 Italian tourists and their Indian driver who had been infected. The actual number of reported cases is available on the Indian government website. To keep it under control, the government is taking preventive measures such as universal examination of passengers at airports. Some laboratories must be open for Covid-19 tests and research.

In the midst of this, some health professionals have released updates to keep the public informed and ready. Information about the Coronavirus is everywhere and people must read it and take precautions to prevent it from being infected by the virus.

Are you infected with Coronavirus?

The Coronavirus novel comes from a large family of disease-induced Coronaviruses, ranging from common cold to the worst diseases such as MERS-CoV respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) and acute severe syndrome, SARS-CoV). And the worst part about this new virus has no obvious symptoms.

Mild health problems such as coughing, sneezing, fever and respiratory problems are some of the symptoms of the infection. In some cases, there may be symptoms. Infected people can carry the virus without infection and the like in the process. Otherwise, infected people can develop severe cases, such as pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death.

How would you detect Coronavirus infection?

So if you have a cough and cold right now, the only way to find out if your Coronavirus is infected or not is to consult a healthcare professional. For the moment, there is no direct standard test for Covid-19. But the virus can be found by undergoing a series of tests.

How is COVID-19 transmitted?

  • Researchers have yet to discover the exact dynamics of virus transmission. But here are some channels through which this happens
  • From spots formed after they cough or sneeze of an infected person
  • Consumption of animal products containing the virus
  • Contact from an infected animal

Maintain good hygiene

Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. Clean thoroughly between your fingers and around the nails. Use a hand sanitizer, disinfectant and alcohol sterilizer to clean your hands, so you don't touch your nose or mouth.

Keep a safe distance from the sick.

Avoid direct physical contact with patients, especially flu, colds, coughs or breathing problems.

Cover your mouth

When coughing or sneezing, keep your mouth covered with masks, rags or paper towels. Also, use medical masks if you are sick.

Heat the food well

The virus can be transmitted by consuming infected animal products. The virus cannot survive high temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to heat food properly before consuming it.

Consult a doctor

Always consult a doctor, even if you have normal and mild symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, fever or breathing problems. In these cases, self-prevention assistance is helpful.

List of things to avoid:

  • Do not touch your face

The virus enters our body through the nose and mouth. Hands can become infected if you get infected, especially in public places. So avoid facing your face before doing it properly.

  • Direct contact with animals

Avoid unnecessary direct contact with animals. The virus can be transmitted from animals to humans. So if you have pets, you need to take care of your hygiene.

  • Don't travel if you're sick.

Ensure you are healthy enough before travelling. If not, consult a doctor immediately. Ignore sharing in public places, buses and taxis if you have a fever, cough, sneezing.

  • Do not take over the counter drugs.

Eating normal antibiotics does not help with Covid-19 infection. If you feel sick, you should take the medicines prescribed by your doctor.

As always, prevention is better than cure. By following the tips above, you can try to protect yourself and your loved one from Coronavirus infection. Be healthy and pay attention!

Research work regarding Covid-19

The Coronavirus pandemic emphasized the importance of connecting to the Internet. Although many people have changed their lives online, there are still more than 3.5 billion people, including more than 18 million Americans, who do not have reliable access to the Internet. To help them, various NGOs are working with the Disaster Resource Information Center and NetHope to provide Internet connections to the communities most affected by COVID-19. The purpose of these partnerships is to improve the understanding of unique barriers that these communities face and to create the programs and infrastructure necessary to increase the availability and accessibility of high-quality Internet access.

Even if the virus slows sharply as the number of employees in China decreases, companies will fight next year because they will have to suffer losses.

For example, in China, the retail sell will fall by 20.5% and the unemployment rate fall to 6.2% in February. When companies like Apple close their stores to limit distribution, this means less revenue and less profit. They can certainly pay their employees during temporary strikes, but other small and medium organizations don’t have a bank balance and most will not be able to pay their employees. Look at the tourism industry. The virus is expected to make a loss of almost $ 820 billion. Virgin Atlantic has just asked the team not to pay for eight weeks.

The ports are also empty and the first round of dismissing employees has already begun. It is estimated that COVID-19 will cost the global economy $ 2.7 billion. And not only people lose money, but will also lose traffic and conversions.

Covid-19 causes a similar excessive immune response in the lungs and organs affected by intestinal inflammation, rheumatism or psoriasis .A research team has now shown in a study that the drugs used to treat autoimmune diseases, called cytokine inhibitors, are Covid-19 inhibitors before Coronavirus spreads into the body.

Covid-19 triggers an immune response, which causes pneumonia, and affects the exchange of gas in the lungs. This stimulating response is due to leptins produced by the lungs and cells of the immune system. These receptors, such as the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 and interleukin-1, also play an important role in diseases such as renin, intestinal inflammation and respiratory diseases and special drugs called cytokines.

Georg Schett, the president of Internal Medicine III, professor, Dr. Michael Sticherling, the president & professor of Skin and Gynecology, and Dr. Markus Neurath, the president of internal medicine (DZI) & director of German immunotherapy (DZI), has analyzed one thousand antibiotics against Novel Coronavirus in the past three weeks. Among the subjects were patients with cytokines and immunosuppressive patients, who received medical personnel in the control group. Result shows that 4% of the control group in the treated group and 2 control groups had no antibodies to Coronavirus. But none of the patients had rheumatoid arthritis, intestinal inflammation or antibodies to psoriasis in Coronavirus. "Cytokine inhibitors appeared with the first SARS-COV-2 virus, which inhibits antibody production," said the Professor Schett.

Therefore, people with rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis should not be considered a risk group for COVID-19, but should actually be protected from the disease. Currently, cytokines used for immunotherapy are being studied in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.

According to phylogenetic research on Coronavirus bird species, it is suggested that these species are a natural reservoir for the virus. Molecular clock analysis using RNA-dependent polymerase (RdRp) showed that there were four generations of Coronaviruses.

Coronavirus is an infectious problem that infects human larvae worldwide. People infected with Covid-19 will suffer from mild to severe fever, breathing problems and other diseases, e.g. cardiovascular disease, etc.

There is currently no vaccine to treat Covid-19. Although lasting medical and clinical evidence exists, there is a cure for such life-threatening diseases worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) is working to raise awareness worldwide. Countries like China, the United States and Italy have suffered a lot. More than ten people are infected worldwide.

Coronavirus is essentially a family of a large number of zoonotic viruses that create a serious obstacle to human health. The zoonotic virus is a type of virus that can be transmitted from animals to humans. There are several Coronaviruses.

Medicines to treat Covid-19 patients:

The best way to fight Covid-19 is to lock yourself in your home. This will slow down the transition process from one person to another. Always protect yourself by keeping the environment and body clean. Since Coronavirus is mainly transmitted through the nose through saliva droplets and sneezing liquid, it is advisable to use a mask and gloves when away from home.

The suspicious spreading of Covid-19 virus from the city of Wuhan in China has turned human life into danger. Scientists are working hard to find the remedy and the medical treatment process to cure Covid-19 patients. Here is a list of few medicines which are prescribed by the doctors while treating Covid-19 patients:

  • Chloroquine: This medicine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) along with hydroxychloroquine. President Donald Trump announced on March 19 that the FDA has approved that the chloride and hydroxy-chloroquine / plaquenil used to treat malaria and arthritis are being tested for COVID-19 treatment. Chloroquine is being studied in various clinical studies conducted by government and academic institutions. The detection of other antiviral agents for the Coronavirus test is expected shortly.
  • Favilavir, the first Coronavirus approved drug in China

The National Drug Administration of China has approved the use of favilavir, an antiviral drug, as a treatment for Coronavirus. The drug has been shown to be effective in treating the disease with minimal side effects in a clinical study involving 70 patients. The clinical trial takes place in the city of Shenzhen, in the Guangdong province.

Pharmaceutical companies involved in the development of Coronavirus drugs / vaccines

Here is a list of the most important Coronavirus drugs developed by pharmaceutical companies around the world that could become important Coronavirus vaccines or antiviral drugs for the treatment of infectious Coronavirus infections.

New Coronavirus vaccine:

Coronavirus vaccines are listed in various stages of development around the world.

  • Entogen Pharmaceuticals Fusogenix DNA Vaccine

Entos Pharmaceuticals is developing a Fusogenix DNA vaccine developed by the Fusogenix drug distribution platform to prevent COVID-19 infections. The drug distribution platform Fusogenix is ​​a proteolipid medium that transfers the genetic load directly to the cells. Entos is working to develop an optimized load containing several protein epitopes derived from the SARS-COV-2 protein, which will activate an immune response in the body to prevent COVID-19 infection.

  • Oxford University ChAdOx1 nCoV-19:

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 of the University of Oxford is a vaccine vector with a vaccinated virus developed by the Jenner Institute of the University. The university is testing the vaccine as part of a planned clinical trial in the Thames valley area. Around 510 volunteers between the ages of 18 and 55 will participate in the study.

  • Gimsilumab Roivant Sciences:

Roivant Science encourages the development of Gimsilumab, a clinical phase human monoclonal antibody. The drug targets macrophages of colon stimulating factor in granulocytes (GM-CSF), which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine found in the serum of patients with COVID-19. The goal of GM-CSF is to reduce lung injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19. 

  • AdCOVID of Altimmune:

Altimmune is working with the University of Alabama in Birmingham (UAB) to develop a single dose of an intranasal vaccine for COVID-19 called AdCOVID. The company is currently conducting immunogenic studies after which the first phase of a clinical trial will take place. Altimmune and UAB will work with researchers in the third quarter of 2020 to conduct preclinical animal studies and complete a clinical trial.  

  • TJM2 by I-Mab Biopharma:

I-Mab Biopharma has developed TJM2, a neutralizing antibody, as a medicinal product for the cytokine storm in patients suffering from a serious case of Coronavirus infection. The drug targets the human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), responsible for acute and chronic inflammation.

The company will begin development after receiving approval from the New Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Vaccination with Medicago Coronavirus

Medicago is developing candidates for a drug against COVID-19 because it produces Coronavirus type virus (VLP) particles. The company collaborated with the Laval University Research Center on Infectious Diseases to develop antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.

The company's research activities are partially funded by the Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR).

Airway Therapeutics AT-100

Airway Therapeutics is studying its new recombinant human protein called AT-100 (rhSP-D) as a treatment for Coronavirus. The company announced a drug evaluation request from the National Institute of Respiratory Health.

AT-100 has been shown to be effective in preclinical studies to reduce inflammation and infection in the lungs, while causing an immune response to a variety of respiratory diseases.

TZLS-501 of Tiziana Life Sciences

Tiziana Life Sciences is developing its own monoclonal antibody called TZLS-501 for the treatment of COVID-19. TZLS-501 is a human anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6R) receptor, which helps prevent lung damage and high IL-6 levels.

The drug works by binding to IL-6R and reduces the amount of IL-6 circulating in the body, thus reducing chronic pneumonia.

OYA1 by OyaGen

OYA1 OYA1 has demonstrated strong antiviral efficacy against Corona svirus in laboratory tests. It has already been shown to be more effective than chlorpromazine HCl in stimulating SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture.

OYA1 has already been approved as a new research drug for cancer treatment, but has been abandoned due to lack of efficacy. OyaGen plans to continue drug research to determine the effectiveness of Coronavirus treatment.

BPI-002 by BeyondSpring

BeyondSpring BPI-002 is a small molecular drug indicated for the treatment of various infections, including COVID-19. It has the capability to activate CD4 + helper T cells and CD8 + cytotoxic T cells and generate an immune response in the body.

In combination with another COVID-19 vaccine, the drug has the ability to create long-term protection against viral infections. BeyondSpring introduced patent protection in the United States for a drug to treat viral infections.

Altimuna Intranasal Coronavirus Vaccine

The intranasal vaccine against Covid-19 is developed by the American clinical phase of the biological industry, Altimmune. The design and synthesis of the single-dose vaccine is complete, while animal testing will follow. The Coronavirus vaccine was developed based on a technology platform for a vaccine similar to NasoVAX, a flu vaccine developed by Altimmune.

INO-4800 from Inovio Pharmaceuticals and Beijing Biotechnology Advaccine

Inovio Pharmaceuticals is partnering with Beijing-based Advaccine Biotechnology to promote the development of the old vaccine, INO-4800, as a new Coronavirus vaccine. The company has launched preclinical studies for the production of clinical products.

Vaccine development was supported by $ 9 million in EEP cash preparation grants for innovation preparation (CEPI).

On March 3, Inovio announced an accelerated deadline for vaccine development. Preclinical studies are ongoing and modeling of human clinical trials has been completed. The company also prepared 3,000 doses for human clinical trials in the United States, China and South Korea. Large production plans were also developed.

Clinical trials on 30 healthy volunteers are expected to begin in the United States in April 2020, followed by China and South Korea. A clinical phase should be conducted in parallel with Beijing Advaccine in China. Clinical trial results are assumed to be available in September 2020.

Inovio aims to produce near about one million doses of the vaccine by the end of 2020 for further clinical trials or the use of emergency services.

NP-120 (Ifenprodil) from Algernon Pharmaceuticals

Algernon Pharmaceuticals has announced that it is studying NP-120 (Ifenprodil) as a possible treatment for COVID-19. Ifenprodil is re-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NDMA).

Remdesivir (GS-5734) of Gilead Sciences

An anti-Ebola drug was made by Gilead Sciences that is not effective is currently being tested in two randomized phase III clinical trials in Asian countries.

The studies were conducted on 761 patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in several hospitals in Wuhan, the epicenter of a new Coronavirus pandemic. The test results are expected to be available in the coming weeks.

According to a report from the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), remdesivir appears to have improved clinical status when administered to an American patient with Coronavirus.

The University of Nebraska medical center has also been conducting clinical trials to examine the safety and efficacy of the drug. The first patient to apply the drug was the evacuation of the Diamond Princess ship.

Actemra di Roche for the treatment of complications related to Coronaviruses

China has approved Roche's use of Actemra to treat severe Coronavirus complications. Drugs such as Actemra have the ability to prevent cytokine storms or an immune system overreaction, which is assumed to be a main reason of organ failure resulting in the death of a few Coronavirus patients. Actemra is also being tested in a medical trial in China, which is expected to receive 188 Coronavirus patients. The clinical trial is expected to last until 10 May. Galidesivir Biocryst Pharma, an antiviral potential for the treatment of Coronavirus.

The antiviral agent Galidesivir (BCX4430) has shown broad spectrum activity against a wide range of pathogens, which also includes Coronavirus. It is a nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor that resists the process of virus replication. The drug has already shown survival benefits for patients against deadly viruses such as Ebola, Zika, Marburg and yellow fever. Galidesivir is currently in an advanced stage of animal regulation to control multiple potential viral threats, including Coronaviruses, viruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, toviviruses, bunyaviruses and arenaviruses.

Regeneronov REGN3048-3051 and Kevzara

The combination of REGN3048 and REGN3051 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, discovered in Regeneron, was studied against Coronavirus infection in a first-person clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The safety and tolerability of the drug have been studied in 48 patients.

The two antibodies bind to the S protein of the Coronavirus MERS. Intravenous administration of drugs in a mouse model of MERS resulted in neutralization of high-level MERS Coronavirus in circulating blood with a reduced viral load in the lungs.

Regeneron is working with Sanofi to evaluate Kevzara, a complete monoclonal antibody in phase 2/3 clinical trials in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. The approval of Kevzara is done for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and is known to block the interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway, causing an overactive inflammatory response in the lungs of patients with COVID-19.

SNG001 by Synairgen Research

SNG001, an inhaled drug, Synairgen Research is slated to test at the University of Southampton to check for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coroviral airways. SNG001 is a natural formulation of interferon-β used by a nebulizer and transmitted directly to the lungs to reduce the severity of Coronavirus infection.

AmnioBoost by Lattice Biologics

Lattice Biologics is investigating the efficacy of the amniotic fluid concentrate, AmnioBoost, for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the body of a person with COVID-19. AmnioBoost has been developed for chronic inflammatory conditions in adults, such as osteoarthritis.

The drug has proven to be effective in reducing inflammatory conditions caused by various diseases, including Coronavirus. It decreases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as increases the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Other companies that develop a Coronavirus vaccine / drug

Companies like Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Moderna and Novavax are asking to develop vaccines. 30 total therapies are being tested, including several traditional treatments for Coronaviruses by Chinese scientists. Chloroquine phosphate has been shown to be effective in treating the symptoms of the disease, among thirty treatments. Patients taking the drug had better fever reduction and shorter recovery times in clinical trials in Hunan and Guangdong province.

Conclusion:

In this blog a detailed experience of everything you need to know about COVID-19 is shared. Starting from the cause of spreading to the remedies, each and every aspect is mentioned. Coronavirus is an infectious problem which has infected lakhs of people all over the world. People who are infected with Covid-19 will face mild to excessive fever, respiratory problems and other illness e.g. cardiovascular diseases, etc. If people take necessary actions mentioned above, then the rate of spread and getting affected due to Covid-19 can be reduced.

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