Sexually transmitted infections or sexually transmitted diseases may affect anyone however, its signs and symptoms are different for both men and women. These infections do not show any symptoms and so, it is possible to get one without even knowing about it. Below are discussed about some sexually transmitted infections that mostly occur in men.
Chlamydia is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection that can be passed after having anal, oral, or vaginal sex without the use of a condom. Men can get this infection in the throat, rectum or urethra.
People consider chlamydia as a "silent" infection as the infections do not cause any symptoms, however, some men may develop the symptoms several weeks after having this infection. In that case, contact STI clinic London, ask your doctor if you need to undergo chlamydia testing to detect the symptoms of this disease.
The signs and symptoms of chlamydia in men are:
- sudden discharge from the penis
- pain at the time of urination
- itching or burning around the penis
- swelling and pain in either one or both the testicles
Chlamydia infections can be the reason for:
- rectal pain
A urine sample will be collected to test for chlamydia in men, but a cotton swab may be used to get a sample from the urethra.
Chlamydia can be treated by taking oral antibiotics. The treatment consists of a single dose or a 7-day course of an antibiotic. There can be repeated infections and so, getting another test for Chlamydia is necessary after completing the treatment.
Herpes is an infection having herpes simplex virus or HSV. Two kinds of herpes simplex virus can affect different body parts and these are:
- Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV–1), also known as oral herpes, maybe the reason for cold sores in and around your mouth.
- Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV–2)causes genital herpes that spread through intercourse without a condom.
Some signs and symptoms of herpes in men are:
- open sores or painful blisters in or around the mouth
- blisters on the buttocks, genitals, thighs or rectum
- fever and loss of appetite
- sore muscles in the buttocks, upper legs and lower back
- itching, burning or tingling sensations of the skin around the blisters
Polymerase Chain Reaction test is done to examine the DNA of individuals and know if they have herpes. With blood tests, healthcare providers will know if someone is having visible sores around the genitals.
There isn’t any remedy for herpes, and people may experience frequent outbreaks in due course. The treatments mainly focus on managing the symptoms and extending the time between outbreaks.
Gonorrhea is an infection that has the bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It may affect the rectum, throat or urethra. Individuals can transmit the bacteria through anal, oral or vaginal sex without the use of a condom. Most men with gonorrhea do not show any symptoms and when gonorrhea in the urethra causes symptoms, these usually appear within 1–14 days after infection.
Some signs and symptoms of gonorrhea in men include the following:
- painful urination
- gray, white or yellow discharge from the urethra
- painful bowel movements
- bloody discharge from the anus
- pain in the testicles
- soreness and itching in the anus
Gonorrhea can be treated by taking antibiotics or dual therapy with azithromycin and ceftriaxone. Healthcare providers are concerned about antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea that will make it difficult for successful treatment.
Bacteria are usually responsible for syphilis that can be transmitted through anal, oral or vaginal sex without having a condom. Men who have had sex with another man have greater chances of getting syphilis.
Syphilis, also called "The Great Pretender" can resemble the symptoms of other diseases. These symptoms usually appear 10–90 days after the infection and having 21 days, on average.
Symptoms of syphilis include:
- a small and firm sore where bacteria entered the body and this can be on the lips, mouth, penis or anus
- sores may even appear on the buttocks or fingers
- swollen lymph nodes in the armpits, groin or neck
- skin rashes on hand palms or feet soles
- white lesions or large gray in the anus, groin, armpit or mouth
- fatigue and headaches
- sore throat
- swollen lymph nodes
- hair loss or muscle aches
The "hidden," stage of syphilis do not show any symptoms yet, they may last for several years. Tertiary syphilis may cause severe health complications that can affect various organ systems. Some symptoms of tertiary syphilis are:
- heart problems
Blood tests will be performed to examine some fluid from a sore and detect if you have syphilis.
An antibiotic known asbenzathinebenzylpenicillinis suggested for treating primary, secondary and latent syphilis. People who have an allergy to penicillin should use a different antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Human Papillomavirus is a common STIs that have more than 150 strains.HPV mainly affects people who are in their late teens and early twenties.
Most men with HPV do not show any symptoms, but some may notice symptoms several months after the initial infection. Common symptoms are warts in the throat or mouth and genital warts that are small bumps around the anus or penis.
HPV is something unusual for sexually transmitted infections as there is a vaccine available for it. Two FDA-approved HPV vaccines are Cervarix and Gardasil and these are effective against HPV types 16 and 18.
Presently, routine screening is not available to check men for HPV and there aren’t any appropriate HPV tests. However, a healthcare provider may prepare a diagnosis depending on genital warts.
Most HPV cases are resolve without treatment and they do not cause health problems. However, if a person does not get treatment for HPV it may lead to various health issues including some kinds of cancer. There is no treatment for HPV, but amen may take oral medications for treating genital warts.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Human immunodeficiency virus attacks immune cells of the body. It may spread due to contact with infected bodily fluids like vaginal fluids, blood and semen. If you have had intercourse without using a condom, then this is the most common method of transmission.
Some signs and symptoms of HIV in men are:
- a sore throat
- a body rash
- swollen lymph nodes
- nausea and vomiting
- joint and muscle pain
There is no remedy for HIV, but healthcare providers may prescribe treatment to prevent transmission, symptoms and progression to stage 3 HIV, which is known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Healthcare providers use antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treating HIV. By performing sexual health tests, you can know if you have any sexually transmitted diseases.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that usually takes place due to viral infection. Common hepatitis virus is hepatitis B virus (HBV) that may spread between people in semen, blood and other bodily fluids.
Most people having hepatitis B don’t show any symptoms and when these symptoms occur, they may develop after 90 days on an average.
Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B are:
- loss of appetite
- abdominal pain
- muscle and joint pain
- jaundice that causes skin yellowing and dark urine
Hepatitis B can be prevented with a vaccination that can help to protect it. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends at least three doses of hepatitis B vaccine for all infants.
Healthcare providers will check for signs of liver damage. Some tests to diagnose hepatitis B are:
- blood tests
- liver biopsy
- liver ultrasound
There is no treatment available for hepatitis B however, people may use medications for chronic hepatitis B.People with chronic hepatitis B should go for medical checkups and know if they have any signs of liver disease.
Men who have sexually transmitted infections do not show any symptoms which means STI cases are higher than the cases provided by healthcare experts. However, these infections may become chronic if they do not get proper treatment on time. Men can avoid STIs by using condoms at the time of intercourse. It is also possible to prevent STIs with the help of vaccinations.
Men who remain sexually active need to perform necessary tests for STIs. Thus, the early detection of these infections, the quicker the treatment will be to prevent men from spreading infections to others.