A dust control system is equipment that is designed to collect air and decontaminate it by removing any mixed particles in it. Basically, it is huge machinery meant to remove any dirt, particles or contaminants present in the collected air. These systems are used in a wide range of industrial applications, such as food processing, welding, plasma cutting, wet machining, metal working, wood working, foundries, plastics, agriculture, etc. Its basic idea is to improve the air quality and handle dust loads in high volumes. It works with the help of several components, including dust filter, dust removal system, blower, filter cleaning system, and others. Since it finds its place in so many diverse industries, there are several types of dust collectors that you can choose from, depending on your purpose and type of dust to be collected. Let’s have a detailed look about this equipment before moving into other topics.
Types of Dust Collectors
Unit collector: This is an entry-level dust collector that is small in size, and works with the help of a fan and a dust collection system. It is not as efficient as its advanced models, and it is less expensive too. It is suitable for portable, frequent and isolated applications.
Baghouse: Also known as a fabric filter, it is a dust control system that can separate dust particles from gas. It contains a huge bag that collects gas and removes dust particles in it. It can work on a variety of principles, such as reverse air, shaking, sonic, pulse jet, cartridge collection, etc. It is one of the most affordable and most successful equipment types to collect dust from gas.
Inertial separator: It is a dust collector that can be used to separate particles from streams of gas. It requires external force to carry out its process. An inertial separator can be classified into a settling chamber, centrifugal collector and baffle chamber.
Wet scrubber: This is another effective dust control system used to remove dust particles from gas. The combination of liquid and gas leads to removal of dust with higher efficacy. The dust particles mix with the water in the machinery, and then drained out through the discharge.
Electrostatic precipitators: In this kind of dust collector, electrostatic force or any other external force is used to separate dust from gas. Through this system, particles in the gas get negatively charged, as a result of which they pass through an ionized field and get attracted to an electrode that is positively charged.
Selecting the Right Dust Control System
Since there are so many types and models of dust collectors in the market, you need to choose one to depend on your application, the flow of air, type of dust particles or contaminants to be collected, and the duration for which the system would work. Depending on these factors, you would be able to decide the right dust control system for your application. The air stream also affects your choice greatly. For instance, if your air stream is going to be extremely hot, then cotton filters would not be the right choice for your application.
Similarly, water vapour can blind a baghouse, and chemicals may damage metal or fabric in web scrubbers. The particles to be filtered also need to be considered. For instance, dust particles like metal ores can have abrasive surfaces and may cause serious damage to inertial separators. Sticky particles may adhere to a baghouse collector, while combustible particles may not be good for electrostatic precipitators.
So, have a look at the design, efficacy, construction, space requirements and maintenance costs of the dust control system, and make an informed choice depending on your purpose and application.