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What Do You Understand by Confounding Variables in Statistics?

A confounding variable in statistics correlates with the independent variable and relates to the dependent ones. This extraneous variable can affect the results but does not reflect the actual relationship between the studied variables. Suppose you want to run an experiment to check what is the effect of exercise on weight loss. Now, for this, you can select an equal number of men and women. Let’s say 500 men and 500 women. So, the conclusion drawn is that the people who exercise more tend to weigh less.

But, the major problem in this experiment is uncontrolled variables. For example, there were no age groups or calorie intake specified. So, when women or men belong to different age groups and have different calorie intakes, their weight can also differ due to these two variables. So, the conclusion drawn above would not be accurate as it undermined the confounding variables.

Why Does It Matter?

A confounding variable can create confusion if not controlled. It influences the result of the experiment in an unanticipated way. With a confounding variable, you might not be able to find the actual relation between the variables in which you are interested.

Like, in the example above, you wanted to see the effect of exercise on weight gain. But due to the confounding variable of age and calorie intake, the result you drew is not valid. To ensure the internal validity of your experiment, you must watch out for any confounding variables.


How to Reduce the Confounding Variable In Statistics?

       Restriction: You restrict the sample group by only including samples with the same values of confounding factors. Suppose you want to study the impact of carb intake on weight loss. In that case, factors like age, education, job, exercise intensity, and time will also contribute to weight loss. So, you restrict your subject pool to only 30-year-old, working men with graduation who exercise for 60 minutes at moderate levels.


        Matching: Select a comparison group matching with the treatment group. Their confounding values should be the same but variables should be independent. It will help you draw a cause-effect relation between the independent variable and the dependent variable. For example, for every 30-year-old graduated man who follows a low-carb diet, you will find another 30-year-old graduated man who does not follow a low carb diet, to compare the weight loss.


       Statistical Control: Once you have collected the data include the possible confounders as variables in your regression analysis. By doing this, you will control the impact of those variables. You can separate the impact if it shows in the result. For example, after collecting data about weight loss and diets from the sample, you include age, education, exercise levels, and gender as controlled variables, along with the type of diet as an independent variable in your regression analysis. It will help isolate the impact of diet chosen due to the impact of controlled variables on weight loss in the regression model.


       Randomization: In this, you can randomly select participants for the treatment group and controlled group. In this process, your treatment and control group have the same average age, exercise levels, and education, along with the average value of variables you have not measured. This method is considered best for minimizing the confounding variables.

All these methods are useful in eliminating the confounding variable in statistics. But what approach you should choose depends on your understanding. It would be best to look for the pros and cons of all the methods above before choosing.

Can You Ship Alcohol at Home via Mail?
Can You Ship Alcohol at Home via Mail?
    Finding the right party supplies can be challenging without spending a fortune. And while people can always head to the store, it can be more fun to try something new once in a while. If folks are looking for something unique and exciting to bring to their next party, they might be shocked to learn that they can send alcohol via postal after following a few restrictions. 
This article answers the question of how can you ship alcohol through the mail and everything one needs to know to get started. So read on and find out how shipping drinks at home can add extra fun to your next celebration!
What is Alcohol, and How is It Shipped?
It is a type of beverage that is produced from fermented sugarcane or other plant sources. It can be shipped in any container approved by the U.S. Postal Service, such as a box, bottle, or can. Folks must package it properly to ensure it does not leak and cause a public disturbance. The shipping package should also include information about the product, such as the brand name and quantity.
How to Ship?
So can you ship alcohol via mail? Yes, you can send them via mail. However, keep these factors in mind:
You'll need to ensure that the package can withstand damage during shipping.
Ensure that the item is appropriately packaged and labeled to avoid any issues at the border.
Follow all the applicable state and federal regulations when shipping.
Contact a professional logistics provider if you have questions about shipping alcohol via mail. They can help you get your package shipped without any issues.
What are the Requirements for Shipping Alcohol via Mail?
The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) states that alcohol is not eligible for mailing and must be shipped in containers that are three-quarters full or less. These can only be shipped to addresses within the United States. Additionally, USPS prohibits this shipment via Priority Mail, Express Mail, or First Class Package Services.
To ship such items via mail, you will need to provide the following information to the USPS:
A physical address where the items will be delivered
The weight and volume of the items being mailed
The type of package being mailed (It may only be sent in a package that is labeled as containing alcoholic beverages)
Choose to ship your drinks via Priority Mail, Express Mail, or First Class Package Services. You must provide documentation from your liquor store certifying that the product meets government regulations and is classified as an alcoholic beverage.
What are the Regulations on Such Shipping?
There are specific regulations governing the shipment of alcohol via mail. The Federal Alcohol Administration (FAA) prohibits shipping any alcoholic beverage across state lines. In addition, shipments of more than 3.4 ounces per item will be subject to additional taxes and fees.   To ship drinks through the mail, you must obtain an FAA permit. Permits are only available for shipments that do not exceed 24 fluid ounces per package and travel no farther than your address. You should also include a copy of your state liquor authority license with your application.   Once you have obtained a permit, you must follow all the same packaging and shipping requirements as if you were shipping alcohol through a commercial carrier. Ensure all required documentation, including proof of delivery, signed paperwork, and insurance information.
Trying to get your drinks shipped home through the mail can be tricky. The ideal way to send alcohol via mail is by contacting a trusted logistics partner. Look for multiple services available online and choose which fits the best.   
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